Sunday, November 23, 2008

More definitions...

-- Parts of the grid: what are the following: margin, column, alley, module, gutter, folio.
Margin: the area around the layout where the text generally doesn't pass. To keep the text
from bleeding off the page.

Column: the vertical blocks on a page, used to organize the text
Alley: blank space between two columns
Gutter: the middle of two pages, like in a book.
Folio: a printed page number

-- What are the advantages of a multiple column grid.?
It allows for the text to be organized more freely around the page rather than in just one place. It also keeps the text from being too text heavy.

-- Why is there only one space after a period?
The characters are proportional. They take up the different amounts of space proportional to their size.

-- What is a character (in typography)?
Anything from letters to punctuation to numbers.

-- How many characters is optimal for a line length? words per line?

-- Why is the baseline grid used in design?
It is used to help organize the text and images. Not only does the stuff on the page align to the specific columns and rules but also to the baseline grid. Also the leading can be organized better as well.

-- What is a typographic river?
Gaps that appear to run down the text paragraph.

-- What does clotheslining or flow line or hangline mean?
The horizontal line that appears on a layout within the text. Made for your eye to go through the page.

-- How can you incorporate white space into your designs?
By not filling up the entire page with text/images. White space helps keep the layout interesting and not text heavy.

-- What is type color/texture mean?
Type color is the non white space in the layout.

-- What is x-height, how does it effect type color?
X-height is the height of the lowercase x in any type. The bigger the type the less the negative space surrounding it.

-- Define Tracking.
Reduces space in a line.

-- Define Kerning. Why doe characters need to be kerned? What are the most common characters that need to be kerned (kerning pairs)?
The process of removing small units of space between letters in order to create visually-consistent letterspacing. Characters need to be kerned in order to remove the awkward letterspacing that looks unprofessional and disrupts the communication of the words. The most common characters that need to be kerned are: HL, HO, OC, OT, and AT

-- In justification or H&J terms what do the numbers: minimum, optimum, maximum mean?
The specific amount of space between words. The minimum being the least possible, optimum that perfect amount and maximum the most possible.

-- What is the optimum space between words?
Enough to make the text easily read and appear correct, not too spaced out or too clumped together.

-- What are some ways to indicate a new paragraph. Are there any rules?
Indents, Spaces, Returns

-- What are the rules associated with hyphenation?
Used in justified paragraphs only. Avoid having too many in a row. Never in the heading/ important text.

-- What is a ligurature?
The blending of two characters. In some fonts, the F mixes in with other letters or the "et."

-- What does CMYK and RGB mean?
They are different types of color management. CYMK is subtractive color space and RGB is additive color space. Most things are in RGB but for large size printing, CMYK is preferred.

-- What does hanging punctuation mean?
The punctuation marks start off on the line before the other lines of the paragraph.

-- What is the difference between a foot mark and an apostrophe? What is the difference between an inch mark and a quote mark (smart quote)?
Footmarks and inch marks are straight and differ completely from the apostrophe and quote marks which have an angled look.

-- What is a hyphen, en dash and em dashes, what are the differences and when are they used.
A hyphen is (-) and is only used for hyphenating words, hence the name.
An en dash is approximately the wideth of the capital letter N. It is used between
words to indicate a duration of time. (In place of the letter “to”)
An em dash is 2x as long as the en dash and is about the size of a capital M. It is
normally used in a change of though or where a period is too strong and
comma is too weak. Similar to a colon or parantheses.

--What is a widow and an orphan?
A widow is the last sentence of a paragraph left at the top of the next page instead
of with it’s own paragraph. An orphan is just that only the last word.

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